Case study versus cohort study

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As noted earlier, descriptive epidemiology can identify patterns among cases and in populations by time, place and person. From these observations, epidemiologists develop hypotheses about the causes of these patterns and about the factors that increase risk of disease. In other words, epidemiologists can use descriptive epidemiology to generate hypotheses, but only rarely to test those hypotheses. For that, epidemiologists must turn to analytic epidemiology. The key feature of analytic epidemiology is a comparison group. Consider a large outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in Pennsylvania in

What are Case Control Studies?

What are Case Control Studies? | Cohort Study | Relative Risk

Healthcare decision makers in search of reliable information comparing health interventions increasingly turn to systematic reviews for the best summary of the evidence. Systematic reviews identify, select, assess, and synthesize the findings of similar but separate studies and can help clarify what is known and not known about the potential benefits and harms of drugs, devices, and other healthcare services. Systematic reviews can be helpful for clinicians who want to integrate research findings into their daily practices, for patients to make well-informed choices about their own care, and for professional medical societies and other organizations that develop clinical practice guidelines. Institute of Medicine.

Case-control and Cohort studies: A brief overview

The goal of most outbreak investigations is to identify the source of the outbreak. In some outbreaks, information available at the outset of the investigation clearly supports a particular source, and all that is needed is to carefully examine the established facts. In the majority of outbreaks, however, the circumstances are not that straightforward, and an analytic study needs to be undertaken.
A case—control study also known as case—referent study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute. A case—control study produces only an odds ratio, which is an inferior measure of strength of association compared to relative risk. The case—control is a type of epidemiological observational study. An observational study is a study in which subjects are not randomized to the exposed or unexposed groups, rather the subjects are observed in order to determine both their exposure and their outcome status and the exposure status is thus not determined by the researcher. Porta's Dictionary of Epidemiology defines the case—control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with the disease or another outcome variable of interest and a suitable control group of persons without the disease comparison group, reference group.

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